See also Multisystemic Therapy (Wikipedia).

Note by the editor: the use of MST as described in the case of juvenile offenders could be considered a special case of application of a more general approach to pathologies in multisystemic contexts. As a hypothetical example: the therapy's principles and distinction between treatment model and evidence-based treatment may be applicable also to the public administration (sector) corruption problem with typology described in Risks of corruption to state legitimacy and stability in fragile situations1.
The implied maintenance of this article would then be: Create a MST - Generic Interaction; make MST - juvenile offenders a specialization of it, and create another specialization (of MST - Generic): Multisystemic anti-corruption interventions in fragile situations.

MST views the youth as embedded within multiple interconnected systems.

Multisystemic Therapy targets risks and protective factors both of the individual and his or her context including the family, peers, school, neighbourhood and community settings. Treatment approaches must have the flexibility to attenuate the multiple known determinants of antisocial behaviour (risk factors), while enhancing protective factors. Effective treatment must have the capacity to intervene comprehensively at family, peer, school and even neighbourhood levels. (Multisystemic Therapy, 17 dec. 2004, url).

Consider also:


Name2 Multisystemic Therapy
Target Outcome For the youth: reduced or removed antisocial behaviour; for the family: improved functioning; for the mental health and juvenile justice services: improved effectiveness and reduced costs; prevention
Social actors and roles Pico: Individual (offender), parents, caregivers; Micro: the caregiver team, the MST service provider; Meso: the MST Institute, offering ''services'' to the practitioners community.
Trigger or preceding interaction serious antisocial behaviour by youth; ineffective coping with this by less-comprehensive approaches
Interfaces and services Treatment and training manuals, by
Inputs and outputs input: a juvenile offender showing serious antisocial behaviour (the “typical” MST youth is between the ages of 14 and 16 years, lives in a home characterized by multiple needs and problems, and has had multiple arrests); problems in family functioning; cost of mental health and juvenile justice services; output: reduced long-term rates of re-arrest (25% to 70%), reductions of out-of-home placements (47% to 64%), extensive improvements in family functioning, decreased mental health problems for serious juvenile offenders, and cost savings in comparison with usual mental health and juvenile justice services.
Stores and tools Treatment theory, Multisystemic Strategic Procedures Manual (Henggeler et al., 1994)
Other characteristics
Part of mental health (part of sector ISIC Section Q - Human health and social work activities) and juvenile justice services (part of function of government COFOG Division 03 - Public order and safety).
Parts pragmatic, problem-focused treatments that have at least some empirical support (yet which have historically focused on a limited aspect of the youth's social ecology)
Succeeding Interactions improved family functioning; reduced risk of re-arrest or need for out-of-home placements
Alternatives Other programs listed at (183 programs listed for various topics, with summaries)
Action Realm Change (of an adolescent)
Further reading What is Multisystemic Therapy (by MST services)

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