To monitor or monitoring generally means to be aware of the state of a system, and how this state changes over time, for instance as the result of a change initiative, a trend or a shock.

Handbook on Planning, Monitoring and Evaluating for Development Results (UNDP) provides a detailed description of various aspects of monitoring as it is applied in UNDP.


The clarification for the fields in the template is given in the Interaction template (Actant Dictionary).

Name Monitoring
Target Outcome Quality data on the condition of a system.
Social actors and roles Monitoring & evaluation expert
Trigger or preceding interaction Programme launch (for Monitoring against a results framework); or a Policy decision (for institutionalised monitoring)
Interfaces and services
Inputs and outputs inputs: a results framework that indicates which data needs to be collected; the data itself, as evidence (on operations, sensations,…) and comments from the various stakeholders; output: data necessary for evaluation
Stores and tools data collection instruments or services
Other characteristics
Part of Regulative Cycle or institutionalised monitoring of a system, country, area, …
Parts Interviews, surveys, other forms of collecting data on a system,…
Succeeding Interactions Evaluation, correcting programmes or projects, other change decisions.
Alternatives Having no data on the condition of a system.
Action Realm Monitoring & Evaluation
Risks Poor monitoring can leads to problems discovered (too) late.
Further reading Monitoring (Wikipedia)

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Position of Monitoring among the interactions: